Jenny ( a story/ish)

Jenny

He would have liked to sit down, but there was no way he could continue to work if he did. And there was a rush order for his day’s lot. Yarn was needed to make some fancy lady’s dress. And he was the fastest spinner in the factory.

His legs, esp his knees and ankles hurt so badly. And his lower back was just killing him. Almost literally. He was on the edge of swooning and nauseous in his pain. And his fingers were throbbing. If it weren’t for the callouses, they’d be bleeding by now. But they couldn’t have blood on the yarn. Not when a lady’s fancy dress was at stake.

Somehow he kept to his feet, and the yarn kept passing thru his machine. Even though he was seeing the oddest things as he worked. He knew he lived in the year of his Lord 1860. Where time was slower. Where people knew their neighbours. ….

But in his mind, he saw huge cities, full of large concrete buildings. Fast vehicles he had never seen before racing by each other. Yet he still heard the factory whistles and saw workers carrying their lunch buckets and filing into work. And his eyes filled with tears, imagining his great grandchildren in that line. He had started this job to improve their lot in life. And it seemed like nothing would change.

He saw a party of fancy ladies waiting at the theatre for the doors to open and looked at the colours and styles of their clothes. Well, there may be more people, but their costumes were indelicate. His wife wouldn’t stand before him in so little. And he would be shamed to stand like that before her. He wasn’t sure if the world would need more or less fabric with that going on.

He saw the factories in many countries. And in some, the people running the machines were still children. And he looked over at his son, so sad and tired he was almost crying. And worried that nothing had improved in the world he was peeking into.

Finally the order was ready. So he took it to his boss for inspection. And was grateful that it passed his eye. He almost went home, but went back into the factory to help his son finish his day’s order.

Father and son went home and had their supper before falling into bed, exhausted. And father dreamed. Of a time before him when the biggest town had three public buildings in it. When people lived in farms and forts and knew nothing of the larger world. To his own time when they might live in a city, but they knew their neighbours and those they went to church with. To a day when the world had so many in it they were like ants in a colony. Scrambling for food and other daily needs. And still they worked in factories. Men, women and children. For the fancy people to have their parties.

All tied to his machine.

He woke in horror.

He didn’t like that future, but didn’t know what to do to change it. This is how the world would move on it seemed.

the origins

Some religions spread by neighbour, some by war and some by convenience or coercion

Some religions spread by neighbour, some by war and some by convenience or coercion

But underneath there is a commonality.

Why do people want/need faith?

  • They want to belong to a group. In a world of storms or animals who predate on humans who are alone when they’re hungry it’s easier to cope when you have people to help. And it’s also easier to find a mate and have children when you have a group to choose from and their support.
  • They want to explain the world, and having a creator god in charge makes it easier to deal with the things they don’t know.
  • Having a group is better when you’re poor. Whether by nation or faith group, poor people need someone to turn to when the floor falls out from under them. And faith groups are easier to get charity from than the nations are.

Why do people argue about religion/faith/spirituality when they agree on so many larger principles?

  • (love, peace, social justice, community, sharing goods and resources, the value of prayer, that there is a god(s), and we have a soul.)
  • (we should live a moral and fair life where we do no harm)
  • (they practice in temples, by saying prayers, feasting and fasting, have high holy days, and sages who guide their way)

Why are people as individuals willing to kill to spread their own POV, to impose it on others?

(and you can’t say they aren’t because they follow the priests and kings who ask for war in the name of power, slaves and land)
I don’t know. Hate? Xenophobia?

And here we are.

In a day when we know the history of the world, claim to be enlightened and value logic and science over all, why do people still think we have to spread faith by the sword? Well today by the missile and the gun.

And why are we willing to allow entire peoples to be wiped out to have our faith be supreme? Do we think that our god(s) are proud of us?

Deeper questions than which prayer service you’ll attend or if you’ll only go a couple times a year on high holidays. Or what your $$s are used for in your community and how much goes to the temple’s leaders for their feather-lined nests. But now and then, don’t you think they need to be asked?

especially this one – What do we allow our leaders to ask of us in the name of God?

…… resources

categories of religions

….. maps

vividmaps
several maps

….. time lapse maps

….. list of major religions/spiritual philosophies

The world’s 20 largest religions and their number of believers are:

  1. Christianity (2.1 billion)
    Most historians believe that Jesus was a real person who was born between 2 B.C. and 7 B.C. in Bethlehem, south of Jerusalem. Christianity began after his death.
  • The Crusades were a series of religious wars between Christians and Muslims started primarily to secure control of holy sites considered sacred by both groups. In all, eight major Crusade expeditions occurred between 1096 and 1291
  1. Islam (1.3 billion)
    Muhammad] was the founder of Islam and the proclaimer of the Qurʾān, Islam’s sacred scripture. He spent his entire life in what is now the country of Saudi Arabia, from his birth about 570 CE in Mecca to his death in 632 in Medina.
  1. Nonreligious (Secular/Agnostic/Atheist) (1.1 billion)
  2. Hinduism (900 million)
    Most scholars believe Hinduism started somewhere between 2300 B.C. and 1500 B.C. in the Indus Valley, near modern-day Pakistan. But many Hindus argue that their faith is timeless and has always existed.
  3. Chinese traditional religion (394 million)
    In China, religious beliefs are evident in the Yangshao Culture of the Yellow River Valley, which prospered between 5000-3000 BCE.
  4. Buddhism (376 million)
    founded by Siddhartha Gautama (“the Buddha”) more than 2,500 years ago in India.
  5. Primal-indigenous (300 million)
  6. African traditional and Diasporic (100 million)
  7. Sikhism (23 million)
    established by Guru Nanak (1469–1539) in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent
  8. Juche (19 million)
    the revised constitution of 1982 adopted ‘Juche’ as the official ruling ideology of North Korea. In 1974, ‘Juche’ was officially renamed ‘Kim Il-sung-ism’ (or simply ‘Kimism’), as “a new and unique system of revolutionary thought, theory, and methodology that reflects the needs arising from an era of self-reliance”
  9. Spiritism (15 million)
  10. Judaism (14 million)
    Abraham (flourished early 2nd millennium BCE)
  11. Bahai (7 million)
    founded from Islam in Iraq in the mid-19th century by Mīrzā Ḥosayn ʿAlī Nūrī, who is known as Bahāʾ Allāh (Arabic: “Glory of God”).
  12. Jainism (4.2 million)
    Jainism originated in the 7th–5th century bce in the Ganges basin of eastern India,
  13. Shinto (4 million)
    In the late 6th century AD the name Shinto was created for the native religion of Japan, originating in prehistoric times,
  14. Cao Dai (4 million)
    movement founded by Ngô Văn Chiêu in Vietnam in 1926. It mixes ideas from other religions.
  15. Zoroastrianism (2.6 million)
    founded in Persia in the 6th century BCE by the priest Zarathustra,
  16. Tenrikyo (2 million)
    Japan – founded in the late 1830’s by Nakayama Miki,
  17. Neo-Paganism (1 million)
  18. Unitarian-Universalism (800,000)
    list source
    more info

From the Top Down – How the United Nations is Addressing Indigenous Peoples’ Rights With Them

From the Top Down – How the United Nations is Addressing Indigenous Peoples’ Rights With Them

  • Especially when dealing with Indigenous Peoples, it’s important to engage with them to determine what is needed, by whom, and involving them in the process.
  • that there has to be recognition that not every group will have the same needs due to their cultural practices and history.
  1. some groups are herders/pastoralists
  2. some are hunters/gatherers
  3. some are farmers
  • Because of the long history of mistreatment at the hands of their nation/states and colonialism, to the point of extinction, this had to be a global effort to protect their rights, cultures, languages and indeed their lives.
  1. the history of missionary schools
  2. paternalism by the nation – refusing the peoples’ opportunities to advocate for themselves, To include them in the voices of authority – police, social workers, nurses, doctors, govt)
  3. land and human rights’ defenders arrested and ‘disappeared’
  4. the quest for self determination
  5. survival during the climate change – islands and coastal regions – storms and deterioration of the land

Which makes it clear that no one solution would fit all of the peoples and nations. And advocacy was/is critical. It took some convincing. And the peoples have been approaching the United Nations since 1923.

Are they making progress?

  • They are finally recognized
  • heard
  • included

Considering the beginning and who the most important nations are on the United Nations (mostly colonizing nations), it’s a start. But they knew from the beginning they had an uphill battle ahead.

….. UN bodies that have been working with Indigenous Peoples

UN – Human Rights Council
UN – Department of Economic and Social Affairs

European Colonialism 15th C to ……?

European Colonialism 15th C to ……?

Most people link Colonialism to England and it’s crown. And in many places in the world that would be true. But colonialism wasn’t created by England’s model.

Same as most people consider Catholicism to be the major ‘church’ behind the crown, It was for France, Spain and Portugal. But not for Russia, Germany or England.

We do have to give some consideration for individual countries speaking for their experience, but it wasn’t that of the entire world. And sometimes we have to remember the common story.

And that often splits empires going out to make war and take over the people and land in the name of their gods. To command the country as imperialists, which has happened thru all of history. They enslaved the people. Yes some were killed.

And what colonialism is. Stanford’s definition To populate the world as their own lands were filling up. To displace those peoples who were already there. To assimilate those who would be and annihilate the rest to make room for their own people.

And that is the frame by which the discovery of new lands and new peoples led to. Entire peoples being lost to time, many forgotten. Languages and cultures lost. New peoples created as the old and new had relations and children were born.

And the world was changed. For power, money, goods, resources…. but mostly for land.

maps of colonies

1500-2000 – Princeton univ map
1500s to the 1960s – vox map

the colonial empires of Europe

  • Portugal
    ‘The Portuguese Colonial Empire was one of the longest-lived empires in European History. Starting in the beginning of the “Age of Discovery”, with the conquest of Ceuta in 1415, it lasted until 1999, with the transfer of Macau to China’
  • Spain
    ‘During the 15th and 16th centuries, Spain led Europe as a global explorer and a colonial force expanding its power worldwide, beginning with Christopher Columbus’ voyage to the Americas in 1492. From this time up until the early 19th century, this nation held colonies in Europe, the Americas, Asia, and Africa.’
  • the Dutch Republic
    ‘The Dutch colonized many parts of the world — from America to Asia and Africa to South America; they also occupied many African countries for years. From the 17th century onwards, the Dutch started to colonize many parts of Africa, including Ivory Coast, Ghana, South Africa, Angola, Namibia and Senegal.’
  • France
    ‘France had two colonial empires. The first one during the XVIth-XVIIIth Centuries was built by large Royal Trading Companies (such as Compagnie des Indes Occidentales). This empire included most of Northern America, some of the richest Caribbean Islands and a large part of India.
    The second colonial empire, constructed in the late 19th Century, began in earnest after the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. This empire rivalled the British empire, and lasted until the 1960s. ‘
  • Kingdom of Prussia/mostly Germany
    ‘ During the early 1880s, Germany joined other European powers in the “Scramble for Africa.” ‘
  • Russia
    Mostly in Eurasia, but it did spread into North America; Alaska, the Aleutian Islands and the Pacific Coast of North America as well.
  • and England
    ‘The British Empire began in its formative years in the sixteenth century and flourished and grew dramatically, lasting until the twentieth century.’

Visions of the Future – (a story/ish)

Visions of the Future

A little boy came up to his grandfather and tugged on his cape to get his attention. It took a few tugs and he almost gave up. But finally, the old man looked down and asked if there was something the boy needed. Well not really, or if there had been, he’d forgotten. So he reached up his arms to be picked up. Which grandfather did.

Grandfather lifted the boy to the sky and vroomed him around like an airplane. But no such thing existed yet. And told him a story about people lining up to get on this aircraft. Something that was heavier than anything they knew of, even the buffalo. Something faster than anything they knew, even the buffalo. It could go higher than a hawk or an eagle. And carried more people than the chief’s sled could.

The little boy asked if dogs could fly so they could pull the aircraft. He was told no. There was something metal that had something in it that would make many sick and many wealthy. And came in barrels full.

The little boy tapped his grandfather’s shoulder to signal he wanted down. And ran to find his father. To tell him what he had just heard. His father remembered the story from his own childhood. And remembered looking for the craft many times, wondering if he would ever see it. But he never had.

Father sent the boy to his mother for a snack, and went to find his own father. He asked if the aircraft were flying today. And the old man said they were just flying in his head. So far. But they might come soon, since they were being drawn now by some young man in a country far away.

The old man said that many would come before him to change their world, before the aircraft rose in the skies for it’s maiden voyage. And there would be a day when the craft would rule the skies, carrying things that destroyed buildings and people at will. As if it was a trixster.

His son asked if there was a way to stop this thing from being built. The old man said no. What had been envisioned now would come to be. If not from this artist, then from another. The craft was something that would change the world. And not necessarily for the better.

But there would come a day when it flew once too often and carried things shaped like an ear of corn. Things that would take many peoples to the gods. And leave earth in ruins with no people on it, if those with power didn’t stop it from changing who they were then.

His son asked if there was anyway to warn the people of what their ways could bring. The old man said no. What had to come would come.

Ghost Train (a story/ish)

Ghost Train

  • The underlying story is historically true, it’s just my way of narrating it.

Darren wanted to go visit his parents and had some time to make the trip. He’d never been on a train overland for days, so he decided this would be a fun way to see his land and took the train rather than flying out as usual.

He bought his ticket and went to the line for boarding. Put his bags in the correct storage area for his section of the train, and kept a bag with his hygiene products and a couple of shirt and undie changes with him. When he got to his seat, he put that under his seat.

The conductor came by and checked his ticket, and gave him his pass to the dining car and settled into the seat. He wasn’t really hungry and pretty tired, so he settled in for a nap first.

As he dozed off, he saw a few groups of people going off and on the tracks with pick axes and shovels. It seemed odd that they would be working as the train was going on the track, but maybe there was an urgent situation? The train conductor didn’t seem bothered by it, so Darren relaxed.

While he continued his nap, he saw teepees beside the tracks and people surrounding them. They were being sent along their way by men in red coats. Some of the kids and women were crying. Again, Darren looked at the conductor for cues to whether he should be upset and the guy was cool as a cucumber. Did this kind of thing happen often?

Next Darren saw people passing furs to men who gave them baubles and bottles and he couldn’t see how those furs were worth so little in the exchange. But then the men gave the people blankets. Maybe they were thicker than they looked? He wasn’t sure what to think.

Darren woke up and realized it was a dream. He shook off his dream and went to get something to eat.

Later than night, he went to the sleeping car and got ready for bed. The train was going slower so it didn’t rock the people on it too much. When Darren settled in and dozed off, he saw the people repairing the track again. And there were some women and children walking beside the track. The children looked really sad. And the women seemed worried. They also looked hungry and tired, like they hadn’t eaten or rested in days. And some of them looked feverish and sick at the end.

That woke Darren up. He pulled his clothes on and went to the bar car. A few other passengers were there as well. They seemed kind of disturbed, like Darren felt as well. So he asked about the people on the track. The bartender assured him no one had been fixing the track since they began. And he would have noticed if large groups had been walking beside the train, cuzz he had just been on his supper break and looking outside as they had run thru a town he had friends in. He had wanted to see if any of them were walking about. So he could wave at them as he went by.

Darren went back to bed, reassured. As he dozed, he saw a few graveyards beside the track. Nothing fancy, just little wooden crosses and a few stones around the plot. So you knew the size of the body buried there. Some were gathered in groups of what looked like adult men, and some were grouped like women and children. Now and then he saw mourners beside the graves, but most of them seemed deserted and untended. Pretty desolate. Darren was sad to think so many lay forgotten by time.

He woke again and went to the bar car. Darren asked the bartender about the graveyards and was told there weren’t any along this section of track. Darren was willing to shake it off as his dream state. But these visions were something he’d never seen before. It was at least the trip on the train triggering the fancy, for whatever reason.

Darren sat beside an older man and asked him if he was familiar with the area. The man said somewhat. And went into the history of the people of the area. It was a pretty desolate area, hadn’t really had many people around since the reservations were relocated. And there were the shacks they had put up for the men who laid the tracks. But they were disassembled when the track was down and they moved on to the next section. A few farmers had tried to settle in the area, but they just didn’t seem to want to stay for long, or they died in a grass fire or got swept out in a river flood that was higher than most had ever been.

The old man said that many people thought the valley was haunted. He wasn’t so sure about the land, but he’d had some odd things happen on the train. Darren asked, like dreams? The old man looked at Darren and said yes.

Darren went back to the sleeping car and laid down while he thought about all of the old man’s story. He didn’t really sleep till morning was due. Then just for a little. He didn’t have any more dreams then.

Darren got up and ready for breakfast and heard some kids going by in the aisle as he showered and changed. They were gone as he went thru the corridor himself.

He asked the conductor if there was a school trip on board. The conductor looked at him weird and said no. With no other comment. Darren found his old man from the night and asked him about the school trip as well. The old man said there weren’t any on board. But he looked at Darren funny too.

When he was getting ready for lunch, he heard the kids again. And one of the teachers sounded angry and there was a slap sound and a kid started to cry. Darren was not happy to hear that at all.

So he asked about the kids when he again met the old man. So the old man said there used to be a school over the hill. Many years ago. But there really were no kids on the train.

Darren was getting confused and upset. So he went to talk to the conductor. And asked him about the area. He said he hadn’t really been on this route for long and didn’t live nearby. So Darren asked about the old man. The conductor didn’t know who he meant. When he was described, the conductor looked at Darren oddly and said there were no such passengers on this trip.

Darren had had enough. He got off at the next stop and booked a flight from there to his parents’. When he arrived, he just couldn’t shake off what the old man had said though. So he went to the library and looked up the history of the area he had travelled thru.

Everything the old man had described was true. Darren felt ill. He wasn’t sure what to think. But he knew he wouldn’t be taking that train route again. He told no one of this experience.

The Creators of AI are Humans, Right? – Battlestar Galactica Miniseries and other Robots in Sci Fi.

The Creators of AI are Humans, Right? – Battlestar Galactica Miniseries and other Robots in Sci Fi.

Battlestar Galactica miniseries

I just watched this and it really reinforces the problem I have with the way AI is represented in sci fi, in some shows more than others. I get they’re trying to entertain us and maybe even show us a few things about ourselves. But in their efforts to be anthropomorphic, are they going too far? They don’t seem to choose the higher human traits, just the worst of us. The AI in this show were greedy, held grudges and were power mad. There was nothing redeeming in them.

Yes, I get there are humans like that too. But sure not all of us, but it was all of the AI. And even people who have antisocial, narcissistic, pathological issues do bond with some people. Just not that many. The AI in this miniseries, didn’t bond, they hive-minded, they plotted. To be that devoid of humanity is impossible. The person wouldn’t survive in the world. To be that lacking in bonds, they wouldn’t survive childhood even.

So I’m curious, what do you see when you look at AI in sci fi? Do you think they have it right? Portray how we would actually build independent of us AI?

Cities and Industries – Resource Use/Abuse and Urban Sprawl – Using Land that Belongs to Indigenous Peoples

Cities and Industries – Resource Use/Abuse and Urban Sprawl – Using Land that Belongs to Indigenous Peoples

I’m sure you’ve seen protests over oil and gas pipelines, over fishing and hunting rights, and issues that involve Indigenous peoples’ ownership/traditional use of their land. And you may even have thought about it in environmental issues, or maybe you are a vegan or animal rights’ activist and want these practices to be stopped?

But what does it mean to the traditions of the Indigenous peoples?

First, do they have a treaty stating the land is theirs to use as they wish? If so, then they should be free to live in their traditional ways, &/or evolve them in ways that keep their culture, faith/religions and people alive, well and attached to their lands. Their home.

What if their traditional way of life involves migrating? At minimum between a winter and summer home? Or where they follow the fish run? Or the herd they care for? What if the land in between has been encroached on by outsiders? What if the species of plant and/or animal is endangered or extinct? What if the people are in an isolated area and cannot ship in alternate foods at fair prices? How often will they be relocated due to fires erasing their homes and businesses? Are they meant to starve to death? To have no shelter? What do they do when their land changes due to climate issues? Or when their traditional land no longer exists? Like it’s predicted will happen to many coastal areas and islands as the world changes? Within the next 50 years.

Will their rights/status be taken from them? Will they be relocated or left in peril? Will they be put into relocation ‘camps’ and left to die there?

The world has changed drastically with the arrival of settlers. When it was a few forts and some farms, it was one thing. But now there are mines, oil rigs, dams and wind turbines where they intrude on Indigenous lands and their normal life and traditional ways. And the city and it’s smog and light pollution affect the peoples’ cultural attachment to the stars and the earth’s cycles. There are mounds of garbage and our hunger for paper and plastic and consumption due to fads and commercialism has stripped the earth of it’s trees, clean water, and many plants. And more of this will be lost if we lose pollinators like bees, some species of which are in danger of extinction. Our hunger for unsustainable crops like coffee and cocoa, our taste for beef have left the Indigenous peoples scrambling or virtually enslaved to the dominant cultures and corporations.

And that encroachment has also endangered the people; with racists rolling on them, &/or ‘human’ predators raping and murdering the women and children. Their attachment to their traditional lands and need to keep their foot there has also left them in shacks, tents, shoddy housing that often gets their children removed from their care. And engaging in businesses like casinos or cigarette running that run counter to their traditions and invite settlers onto the reserve. Which also exposes them to their viruses/outbreaks.

This is why the Indigenous People have become more and more involved with the environmental movements, land rights’ battles, and are seeking and gaining ground in the cause of self determination. Developing their own police, child protection workers, and band councils. So they don’t become extinct, like many have before. Not just their languages, traditional ways and culture, but the entire tribe. In Canada we have an example(s) of this happening. Have you heard of the Beothuk for eg?

Where the world had many peoples who lived and loved in their own ways, between the roars of empire building, the Indigenous Peoples are as of now approx 5% of the world’s population.

And this is why they seek their own governance and rights. This is why they’ve gone to the United Nations.

Conversion of the World Indigenous Peoples

Conversion of the World Indigenous Peoples

Shortly after the Papal Bull and Reformation Era , the world became dotted with missions trying to convert/assimilate the Indigenous Peoples, and/or enslave then residential schools.

Was the Catholic Church trying to replace all the people who left to be protestants, were they excited by the chance of all those new souls they could shape in a way Europe was lost to? Had they lost whatever humanity they once had? Were they bored cuzz the Crusades were over?

They found out from the traders about these previously unknown peoples and decided to wander the earth, with a Bible, cassock and cross.

The harm was profound and started an avalanche that has changed and lost so many to the hands of what was supposed to be a path of peace and love. It had become a horror instead. One that many peoples are still affected by daily. Some peoples are gone, as if they had never existed, some have very few members left and some are caught in the nightmares associated with their recovery.

If you want to know more, here are a few areas of the world that have been fighting this conversion since the 15-16th centuries:

….. residential schools @ the world

UN report

and the early missions

….. Scandinavia

the Sami of Scandinavia
Sami and the Catholic Church/1500s

….. New Zealand & the Pacific Islands

the Maori of New Zealand
the Spanish and Portugese – Jesuits came to the Micronesia/Pacific Islands

…… Canada

New France
Recollets and New France/pre-Canada

……. US & Latin Americas

Spanish missions in North America/US
the Aztecs of Mexico, the Incas of Peru, Guaraní Indians of Paraguay, the Maya of Guatemala and Yucatán

Explorations of the ‘New World’ – Trade Routes into the Americas

Explorations of the ‘New World’ – Trade Routes into the Americas

In an old world that was filling up with people, in a quest for discovery and items to trade, a sense of conquest and one-up-man-ship between empires, eventually the Americas had to be discovered and exploited. When and by whom are the un-provable points. We know that contact was made. Was it by priests (which can be traced back to the 1600s)? Not as likely as it was by explorers (were they cartographers or traders?) Were they sent by empires &/or by adventurous people looking for something new?

If we listen to the stories of the first nations in the Americas, before the first known waves of Europeans came, they knew of the ‘white man’ who would be coming to change their civilization. So when greeting the priests and sailors of the ‘discovery’, the first nations were not as surprised as they might have been. There are stories and bones of Caucasian people in the Americas dated prior to 1492, whether you look at the Vikings (in Greenland, Iceland and Newfoundland) or some stories that point at some of the US, or South and Central America.

What we know about contact, whether it’s for trade or conversion of the peoples, is that it changes the people who meet. They trade languages, cultural stories and goods and their life is impacted. Sometimes they trade sexual activity and new peoples arise. And change occurs, on both sides of the oceans.

And we know that before the Americas have nations of European design, trade was going on between the first nations and the old lands of Asia, the Pacific Islands, the Middle East, North Africa and lastly Europe. We just can’t prove when. Though carbon dating is giving us some theories.

trade routes vs cartographers

Silk Road

between Greece and China – by land
Roman Empire to Indonesia and Malaysia – by boat and land
some might say between the UK and the Pacific Islands -directly or indirectly
the broad sense
when/if to Central and South Americas?

in search of the NorthWest Passage

Cartier
Hudson, et al
HBC

Christopher Columbus came

(1492) looking for trade routes with India, which may be referring to the Silk Road?