Metis, Inuit, and S/NS “Indian” Canadians
Unless you refer to them by their band name, in Canada they are called
Until you come to politics. Then they are divided into four groups (only some of whom are known as “Indians”):
Original Métis were mixed heritage (from Cree, Saulteaux and Assiniboine Indigenous “Indian” tribes) and (Scot and French/European) From the Red River area of Manitoba who traded with the Hudson’s Bay Company..
eight main Inuit ethnic groups: the Labradormiut (Labrador), Nunavimmiut (Ungava), Baffin Island, Iglulingmuit (Iglulik), Kivallirmiut (Caribou), Netsilingmiut (Netsilik), Inuinnait (Copper) and Invialuit or Western Arctic Inuit (who replaced the Mackenzie Inuit). also from Greenland, Alaska, Yukon and the northern territories of Canada.
status (card as proof of lineage), treaty and band “Indians’
attached to ancestral lands and “reserves” by “treaty”
covered by the Indian Act’s band list
non-status “Indians”. Of Aboriginal blood lines, but not attached to a band or treaty as yet. Treaties and ancestral lands are still under negotiation with the applicable govts..
The Delgamuukw Test: Demonstrating Aboriginal Title beyond oral history.
Non-status Indians have no more rights than any other Canadian. They are covered by the Cdn laws as any other citizen would be.
Treaty rights are really important for such issues as hunting, fishing, logging, which to the First nations are survival tools as well as ancestral/cultural rites.
…. residential schools
….. Origin story
The current theory seems to be that the “Indian” people came from south west Asia and Polynesia. Some came over the land bridge between Russia and Alaska. And some came thru the Polynesian Islands and by boat over the Pacific Ocean.
Early trade routes may have extended the populations some. ie The Silk Road (c. @BC- to @1500 AD) which some say the maritime route went thru the Pacific Islands and was joined at Central and South America. Most say it went from Rome to China. Some also extend it thru Europe to the UK islands.
Which explains the variance in the Genotype studies of the First Nations’ people.
Some tribes alligned with the Colonist Nations , some sided with Britain in the battle with the USA and some sided North or South in the Civil war of the USA. Some remained independent or fought against all comers. So some may have found it easier to get land rights and status honoured.
And Canada is a bilingual nation due to our history of being held by France and England. No doubt that had impact on which tribes were given priority, when the British Empire took the realm.