rigging and asphyxia

First, let me say that I’m not a rigger. But asphyxiation is a common problem/safety hazard with police, nursing, construction (my dad and brothers are gen contractors), and other health and emergency services. So I’ve looked up sources that are relevant to several to come up with common pointers.

## three types of asphyxiation that can and do result in death:
* gas exchange – oxygen and carbon monoxide
* compression
* Posture/position

A common injury/risk in [rigging][http://www.kinkweekly.com/article-anniebear/almost-everything-about-rope-bottoming/]

## Positional Asphyxia
A form of asphyxia which occurs when body position prevents adequate gas exchange, such as from upper airway obstruction or a limitation in chest wall expansion, e.g., due to steering wheel
* compression or limited neck expansion
* breathing -gas and room to breathe
* position
* force

## Signs and Symptoms of Asphyxia

Any of the following symptoms can lead to asphyxia.

* Difficulty and/ or noisy breathing, which may ultimately lead to cessation
* Rapid pulse
* High blood pressure (hypertension)
* Cyanosis of the face
* Swollen veins on the head and neck
* Convulsions
* Paralysis
* Slowly losing consciousness
* Complications from Asphyxia

Although there are only a few numbers of possible complications from asphyxia, they are, nonetheless, severe and sometimes, irreversible.

* Coma
* Brain death
* Death

## So knowing that…
CPR seems to be a necessary safety measure for a rigger.
And have your cell handy during rigging.

## Positions that leave one most vulnerable:
* face down
* prone with weight on back
* neck hyperflexed
* chest wall compressed
* neck area compromised
* enclosed/narrow space – mobility
* standing upright
* fully suspended ( no weight supporting you on the ground) vs partially (some weight supporting you on the ground)
* ropes around neck and chest vs a harnass style
* closed in area/room vs well ventilated area/ room

## positional asphyxia sources-
[definition][http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Positional+asphyxiation]
[first aid][http://firstaidandcprcourses.ca/asphyxia-causes-signs-and-symptoms-complications-and-first-aid-management/]
[forensics-legal][http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1752928X08000115]
[police][https://www.policeone.com/less-lethal/articles/1996241-Science-liability-use-of-force-and-restraint-asphyxia/]
[pathology][http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1988699-overview]
[forensic -medical][https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26840099]
[behaviour mgmt][https://www.crisisprevention.com/Blog/June-2011/Positional-Asphyxia]

## compression asphyxia source
[forensics -medical][https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24781404]

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