pro notes on depression

* [anger pain and depression- psychology today][]

Anger, pain and depression are three negative experiences so closely bound together it can sometimes be hard to know where one ends and the other begins. Pain is a complex phenomenon that has emotional and physical components. The emotions play a huge role in the experience of pain, and pain is intimately associated with depression. It’s long been known that the psychic pain of depression feeds anger. But just as often, anger fuels depression.

A powerful emotion physiologically and emotionally, anger often feels good—but only for the moment. It can be a motivating force that moves you to action. But there are good actions and bad ones; it’s vital to distinguish between the two.

Many people confuse anger and hostility. Anger is a response to a situation that presents some threat. Hostility is a more enduring characteristic, a predisposition, a personality trait reflecting a readiness to express anger.

Anger is usually anything but subtle. It has potent physiological effects. You feel it in your chest. You feel it in your head. You feel it coursing through your body.

Nevertheless, anger can be insidious. Anger confers an immediate sense of purpose; it’s a shortcut to motivation. And if there’s something depressed people need, it’s motivation. But anger creates a cycle of rage and defeatism.


* [self fulfilling prophecy][]

A self-fulfilling prophecy is when you thinksomething will happen, and then you make it happen. “We imagine one of many outcomes, and then we consciously or unconsciously make the outcome a reality,

* [Seligmann – learned help/hope-lessness][]

An adaptation of this theory argues that depression results not only from helplessness, but also from hopelessness. The hopelessness theory attributes depression to a pattern of negative thinking in which people blame themselves for negative life events, view the causes of those events as permanent, and overgeneralize specific weaknesses to many areas of their life (e.g., “I am not good at creative things, so I am therefore not a good mother, therefore my relationship with my child is undoubtedly doomed”).

Other cognitive behavioral theorists suggest that people with “depressive” personality traits appear to be more vulnerable than others to depression. Examples of depressive personality traits include neuroticism, gloominess, introversion, self-criticism, excessive skepticism and criticism of others, deep feelings of inadequacy, and excessive brooding and worrying. In addition, people who regularly behave in dependent, hostile, and impulsive ways appear at greater risk for depression.

* [ama – journal of ethics][]


– Depressed mood,
– Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in activities,
– Significant weight loss (when not dieting), or weight gain, or change in appetite,
– Insomnia or hypersomnia,
– Psychomotor agitation or retardation,
– Fatigue or loss of energy,
– Feelings of worthlessness or guilt,
– Diminished ability to think or concentrate,
– Recurrent thoughts of death, recurrent suicidal ideation, or a suicide attempt [8].
To meet DSM-IV criteria for an episode of major depression, 1 of the 5 symptoms must be either depressed mood or diminished interest. These symptoms must cause clinically significant stress or impairment in functioning and cannot be directly attributable to another medical condition.

* [world health org][]


* [psychology today][]


– Persistent sad, anxious, or empty mood
– Feelings of hopelessness or pessimism
– Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness
– Loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies and activities that were once enjoyed, including sex
– Decreased energy, fatigue, being “slowed down”
– Difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions
– Insomnia, early morning awakening or oversleeping
– Appetite and/or weight loss, or overeating and weight gain
– Thoughts of death or suicide, suicide attempts
– Restlessness, irritability
– Persistent physical symptoms that do not respond to treatment, such as headaches, digestive disorders and chronic pain

* [nih][]

– appetite or weight loss or gain;
– insomnia or hypersomnia;
– agitation or retardation;
– loss of energy or fatigue (DSM-IV);
– loss of confidence or self-esteem (ICD-10);
– worthlessness or guilt;
– reduced concentration or indecisiveness;
– thoughts of suicide or suicide attempt.

* [nih – PD vs depression][]

* [psych central – addictions and depression][]

Depressive disorders often cause acutely uncomfortable feelings such as overwhelming sadness, hopelessness, numbness, isolation, sleep disorders, digestive and food-related disorders. It is tempting, if medications aren’t being prescribed or used properly, for people suffering from depression to self-medicate.

This can compound the depression and make it far worse.


* [webmd][]

Depression is a risk factor for dementia, researchers report, and people with more symptoms of depressiontend to suffer a more rapid decline in thinking and memory skills. While the study found an association between the two, it did not prove a cause-and-effect relationship.

* [mayo clinic][]

Inherited traits play a role in how antidepressants affect you. In some cases, where available, results of genetic tests (done by a blood test or cheek swab) may offer clues about how your body may respond to a particular antidepressant. However, other variables besides genetics can affect your response to medication.

  • [psychotic depression][]


    People with psychotic depression have symptoms of depression and psychosis.

    Psychosis is a loss of contact with reality. It usually includes:

    • Delusions: False beliefs about what is taking place or who one is
    • Hallucinations: Seeing or hearing things that aren’t there

    The types of delusions and hallucinations are often related to your depressed feelings. For example, some people may hear voices criticizing them, or telling them that they don’t deserve to live. The person may develop false beliefs about their body, for example, that they have cancer.

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